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Residents of nursing homes could receive vaccine by the end of December, official says.

Trump administration officials on Sunday laid out an ambitious timetable for the rollout of the first coronavirus vaccine in the United States, rebuking President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr.’s criticism that there was “no detailed plan that we’ve seen” for getting people immunized.

Dr. Moncef Slaoui, chief science adviser of Operation Warp Speed, the administration’s program to develop and deploy vaccines, said that residents of long-term care facilities will receive the first round of vaccinations by mid-January, perhaps even by the end of December. In some states, this group accounts for about 40 percent of deaths from the coronavirus.

The timing assumes that the Food and Drug Administration authorizes the vaccine, made by Pfizer, this week or shortly thereafter. An advisory committee to the agency will meet on Thursday to review the data on safety and efficacy. Alex Azar, the Health and Human Services secretary, on Sunday predicted authorization “within days” of the meeting.

“If things are on track, the advisory committee goes well, I believe we could see F.D.A. authorization within days,” Mr. Azar said on the ABC program “This Week.” “It’s going to go according to F.D.A. gold-standard processes.” When it comes to distribution, he voiced concern for elderly populations and minorities, but noted, “Our governors make the call at the end of the day on whom they will prioritize.”

If the agency authorizes the vaccine, distribution could begin as soon as the end of this week, Dr. Slaoui, the Operation Warp Speed adviser, said. “By end of the month of January, we should already see quite a significant decrease in mortality in the elderly population,” he said on CNN’s “State of the Union.”

Barring unexpected problems with manufacturing the vaccine, most Americans at high risk from coronavirus infection should be vaccinated by mid-March, and the rest of the population by May or June, he added.

President-elect Biden sounded a considerably more skeptical note on Friday, saying that there was “no detailed plan that we’ve seen, anyway, as to how you get the vaccine out of a container, into an injection syringe, into somebody’s arm.”

Dr. Slaoui said his team expected to meet Mr. Biden’s advisers this week and brief them on details of the plan for the vaccines’ distribution.

Britain has already approved the Pfizer vaccine and expects to begin immunizing its population this week. Like the F.D.A., European regulators are still examining data on the vaccine’s safety and effectiveness.

A second vaccine, made by Moderna, also has been submitted to the F.D.A. for emergency authorization.

Dr. Slaoui was optimistic about long-term protection from the vaccine. The elderly or people with compromised immune systems might need a booster in three to five years, he said, but for most people the vaccine should remain effective for “many, many years.”

Still, it’s unclear whether those who have been immunized may still spread the virus to others. “The answer to that very important question” should be known by mid-February, he said.

Up to 15 percent of those receiving the shots experience “significant, not overwhelming” pain at the injection site, which usually disappears in a day or two, Dr. Slaoui told CBS’s “Face the Nation,” also on Sunday.

Operation Warp Speed was expected to have 100 million doses of the Pfizer vaccine by December, a number that has since been slashed by more than half.

Although the clinical trials were completed faster than expected because of the high level of virus transmission in the United States, manufacturing problems scaled down the expected number of available doses to 40 million.

Safeguarding the vaccines are another matter, as the former U.S. cyber chief warned of attempts by several U.S. adversaries to steal intellectual property related to the vaccine.

Russia, China, Iran and North Korea have all been found to have been involved in “some kind of espionage or spying, trying to get intellectual property related to the vaccine,” said Christopher Krebs, who was until recently director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency. Speaking on the CBS program “Face the Nation,” Mr. Krebs said that in his tenure, C.I.S.A. staff had been working on looking for “critical weak spots” in vaccine makers’ supply chains and public health institutions.

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